Antiretroviral Resistance

Module 10, Version 4


  • Anastassopoulou CG, Ketas TJ, Klasse PJ, Moore JP. Resistance to CCR5 inhibitors caused by sequence changes in the fusion peptide of HIV-1 gp41. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5318-5323.
  • Baxter JD, Dunn D, White E, et al. Global HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment Trial. HIV Med. 2015 Apr;16(1):77-87.
  • Baxter JD, Mayers DL, Wentworth DN, et al. A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. AIDS. 2000;14:F83-F93..
  • Bennett DE, Camacho RJ, Otelea D, et al. Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update. PLoS One. 2009; 4:e4724.
  • Cane P, Chrystie I, Dunn D, et al. Time trends in primary resistance to HIV drugs in the United Kingdom: Multicentre observational study. BMJ. 2005;331:1368.
  • Castagna A, Maggiolo F, Penco G, et al. Dolutegravir in antiretroviral-experienced patients with raltegravir- and/or elvitegravir-resistant HIV-1: 24-week results of the phase III VIKING-3 Study. J Infect Dis. 2014;210:354-362.
  • Cohen CJ, Hunt S, Sension M, et al. A randomized trial assessing the impact of phenotypic resistance testing on antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2002;16:579-588.
  • Cohen CJ, Molina JM, Cahn P. Efficacy and safety of rilpivirine (TMC278) versus efavirenz at 48 weeks in treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients: Pooled results from the phase III double-blind, randomized ECHO and THRIVE trials. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60:33-42.
  • Das K, Arnold E. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and antiviral drug resistance. Part 2. Curr Opin Virol. 2013;3:119-128.
  • Durant J, Clevenbergh P, Halfon P, et al. Drug-resistance genotyping in HIV-1 therapy: The VIRADAPT randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;353:2195-2199.
  • Goetz M, Leduc R, Kostman J, et al. HIV replicative capacity is an independent predictor of disease progression in persons with untreated chronic HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53:472-479.
  • Hatano H, Lampiris H, Fransen S, et al. Evolution of integrase resistance during failure of integrase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54:389-393.
  • Kassaye SG, Grossman Z, Balamane M, et al. Transmitted HIV drug resistance is high and longstanding in metropolitan Washington, DC. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(6):836-843.
  • McGee KS, Okeke NL, Hunt CB, et al. Canary in the Coal Mine? Transmitted Mutations Conferring Resistance to All Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors in a Treatment-Naïve Patient. Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 8; 5:ofy294. (
  • McGovern RA, Thielen A, Mo T, et al. Population-based V3 genotypic tropism assay: A retrospective analysis using screening, samples from the A4001029 and MOTIVATE studies. AIDS. 2010;24:2517-2525.
  • Miller V. International perspectives on antiretroviral resistance. Resistance to protease inhibitors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;26 Suppl 1:S34-S50.
  • Molina JM, Cahn P, Grinsztejn, et al. Rilpivirine versus efavirenz with tenofovir and emtricitabine in treatment-naïve adults infected with HIV-1 (ECHO): A phase III randomised double-blind active-controlled trial. Lancet 2011;378:238-246.
  • Novak RM, Chen L, MacArthur RD, et al. Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in chronically HIV-infected, treatment-naïve patients: Implications for routine resistance screening before initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:468-474.
  • Panichsillapakit T, Smith D, Wertheim T, et al. Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance among recently infected persons in San Diego, California 1996-2013. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;71:228-236.
  • Raymond S, Delobel P, Mavigner M, et al. Correlation between genotypic predictions based on V3 sequences and phenotypic determination of HIV-1 tropism. AIDS. 2008;22:F11-F16.
  • Saag MS, Benson CA, Gandhi MD, et al. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2018 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. JAMA. 2018;320:379-396.
  • Scherrer AU, von Wyl V, Yan W, et al. Emergence of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance almost stopped in Switzerland: A 15-year prospective cohort analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):1310-1317.
  • Shafer RW, Hertogs K, Zolopa AR, et al. High degree of interlaboratory reproducibility of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequencing of plasma samples from heavily treated patients. J Clin Microbiology. 2001; 39:1522-1529.
  • Talbot A, Grant P, Taylor J, et al. Predicting tipranavir and darunavir resistance using genotypic, phenotypic, and virtual phenotypic resistance patterns: An independent cohort analysis of clinical isolates highly resistant to all other protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2473-2479.
  • Tambuyzer L, Nijs S, Daems B, Picchio G, Vingerhoets J. Effect of mutations at position E138 in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase on phenotypic susceptibility and virologic response to etravirine. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;58:18-22.
  • Tostevin A, White E, Dunn D, et al. Recent trends and patterns in HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in the United Kingdom. HIV Med. 2017;18:204-213.
  • Tural C, Ruiz L, Holtzer C, et al. Clinical utility of HIV-1 genotyping and expert advice: The Havana trial. AIDS. 2002;16:209-218.
  • Vingerhoets J, Tambuyzer L, Azijn H, et al. Resistance profile of etravirine: Combined analysis of baseline genotypic and phenotypic data from the randomized, controlled phase III clinical studies. AIDS. 2010;24:503-514.
  • Weinstock HS, Zaidi I, Heneine W, et al. The epidemiology of antiretroviral drug resistance among drug-naïve HIV-1-infected persons in 10 US cities. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:2174-2180.
  • Wensing AM, Calvez V, Günthard HF, et al. 2017 update of the drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1. Top Antivir Med. 2017;24:132-141.
  • Xu L, Pozniak A, Wildfire A, et al. Emergence and evolution of enfuvirtide resistance following long-term therapy involves heptad repeat 2 mutations within gp41. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1113-1119.
  • Yang W, Kouyos R., Scherrer A, et al. Assessing the paradox between transmitted and acquired HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations in the Swiss HIV cohort study from 1998 to 2012. J Infect Dis. 2015;212:28-38.
  • Young , Fransen S, Greenberg KS, et al. Transmission of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor multidrug-resistant HIV-1: case report and response to raltegravir-containing antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther 2011;16:253-6.
  • De Meyer S, Dierynck I, Lathouwers E, et al. Identification of mutations predictive of a diminished response to darunavir/ritonavir: Analysis of data from treatment-experienced patients in POWER 1, 2, 3, and DUET-1 and DUET-2. Programs and abstracts of the 6th European HIV Drug Resistance Workshop; March 26-28, 2008; Budapest, Hungary. Abstract 54.
  • Gagliardini R, Ciccullo A, Borghetti A, et al. Impact of previous M184V on virological outcomes on switch to 3TC-based dual therapies. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 498.
  • Kim D, Ziebell R, Saduvala N, et al. Trend in transmitted HIV-1 ARV drug resistance-associated mutations: 10 HIV surveillance areas, US, 2007-2010. 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; March 3-6, 2013; Atlanta, Georgia. Abstract 149.
  • Misra K, Jamie Huang J, Daskalakis DC, Udeagu CC. Impact of PrEP on drug resistance and acute HIV infection, New York City, 2015-2017. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). March 4-7, 2019. Seattle. Abstract 107.
  • Ocfemia CB, Kim D, Ziebell R, et al. Prevalence and trends of transmitted drug resistance-associated mutations by duration of infection among persons newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection: 5 states and 3 municipalities, US, 2006 to 2009. Presented at the 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; March 5-8, 2012; Seattle, Washington. Abstract 730.
  • Santoro MM, Fornabaio C, Malena M, et al. Susceptibility to bictegravir in highly ARV experienced patients after INSTI failure. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. March 4-7, 2019. Abstract 550.
  • Wang Z, Walits E, Gordon D, et al. Transmitted drug resistance and time of HIV infection, New York State, 2006-2013. Programs and abstacts of the 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. February 23-26, 2015;| Seattle, Washington. Abstract 599.
  • Yang D, Lai J, Cal S, et al. HIV resistance-associated mutations observed in cell-associated DNA sequencing assay. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. May 4-7, 2019. Seattle, WA. Abstract 543. 

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