ART Management for Special Populations

Module 9, Version 4


  • Abrass CK, Appelbaum JS, Boyd CM, et al. Summary report from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Aging Consensus Project: Treatment strategies for clinicians managing older individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60:974-979.
  • Baum MK, Rafie C, Lai S, et al. Crack-cocaine use accelerates HIV disease progression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50:93-99.
  • Cofrancesco J Jr, Scherzer R, Tien PC, et al. Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort. AIDS. 2008;22:237-245.
  • Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) Study Group, Sabin CA, Smith CJ, d'Arminio Monforte A, et al. Response to combination antiretroviral therapy: Variation by age. AIDS. 2008;22:1463-1473.
  • Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1173-1180.
  • Cooper ER, Charurat M, Mofenson L, et al. Women and Infants' Transmission Study Group. JAIDS. 2002;29:489-494.
  • Courlet P, Livio F, Guidi M, et al. Polypharmacy, drug-drug interactions, and inappropriate drugs: New challenges in the aging population with HIV. Open Forum Infec Dis. 2019 Dec;6(12):ofz531.
  • Cuzin L, Katlama C, Cotte L, et al. Ageing with HIV: Do comorbidities and polymedication drive treatment optimization? HIV Therapy. 7 Oct 2016 DOI:10.1111/hiv.12441.
  • DeFrancesco D, Wit FW, Bȕrkle, et al. Do people living with HIV experience greater age advancement than their HIV-negative counterparts? AIDS. 2019;33(2)259-268.
  • DeLorenze GN, Weisner C, Tsai AL, et al. Excess mortality among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with substance use dependence or abuse receiving care in a fully integrated medical care program. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:203-210.
  • Dickover RE, Dillon M, Gillette SG, et al. Rapid increases in load of human immunodeficiency virus correlate with early disease progression and loss of CD4+ cells in vertically infected infants. J Infect Dis. 1994;170:1279-1284.
  • Dorenbaum A, Cunningham CK, Gelber RD, et al. Two-dose intrapartum/newborn nevirapine and standard antiretroviral therapy to reduce perinatal HIV transmission: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2002;288:189-198.
  • Dunn DT, Newell ML, Ades AE, et al. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission through breastfeeding. Lancet.1992;340:585-588.
  • Evers YJ, Garaet JH, Van Liere G, et al. Attitude and beliefs about the social environment associated with chemsex among MSM visiting STI clinics in the Netherlands: An observational study. PLoS One. 2020 Jul1;15(7);30235467.
  • Ford N, Calmy A, Mofenson L. Safety of efavirenz in the first trimester of pregnancy: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS. 2011;25:2301-2304.
  • Fowler MG, Newell ML. Breastfeeding and HIV-1 transmission in resource-limited settings. J Acquir Immuno Defic Syndr. 2002;30:230-9.
  • Galli L, Puliti D, Chiappini E, et al. Is the interruption of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy an additional major risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV type 1? Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1310-1317.
  • Guaraldi G, Malagoli A, Calcagno A, et al. The increasing burden and complexity of multi-morbidity and polypharmacy in geriatric HIV patients: a cross sectional study of people aged 65-74 years and more than 75 years. BMC Geriatrics. 2018;18:99
  • Guaraldi G, Zona S, Silva AR, Menozzi M, Dolci G, Milic J, et al. (2019) The dynamic association between Frailty, CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio in people aging with HIV. PLoS ONE. 14(2):e0212283. pone.0212283
  • Hillfors DD, Iritani BJ, Miller WC, Bauer DJ. Sexual and drug behavior patterns and HIV and STD racial disparities: The need for new directions. Am J Pub Health. 2007;97:125-132.
  • Hogg RS, Eyawa O, Collins AB, et al. Health-adjusted life expectancy in HIF-positive and HIV-negative men and women in British Columbia: A population-based observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. Mar 2, 2017; ePub DOI:10.107/5352 3018(17)20029-2.
  • Kong AM, Pozen A, Anastos K, et al. Non-HIV comorbid conditions and polypharmacy in people living with HIV age 65 or older compared with HIV-negative individuals age 65 or older in the United States: A retrospective claims-based analysis. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 33(5)2019. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2018.0190.
  • Mackesy-Amiti ME, Fendrich M, Johnson TP. Symptoms of substance dependence and risky sexual behavior in a probability sample of HIV negative men who have sex with men in Chicago. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;110:38-43.
  • Mahy M, et al. Increasing trends in HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older: Evidence from estimates and survey data. AIDS. 2014;28:online edition.
  • McComsey G, Kitch D, Daar ES, et al. Bone mineral density and fractures in antiretroviral-naïve persons randomized to receive abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine along with efavirenz or atazanavir-ritonavir: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG A5202. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1791-1801.
  • Millett GA, Flores SA, Bakeman R. Explaining disparities in HIV infection among Black and White men who have sex with men: A meta-analysis of HIV risk behaviors. AIDS. 2007;21:2083-2091.
  • Nance RM, Perez Trejo ME, Whitney BM, et al. Impact of abstinence and of reducing illicit drug use without abstinence on HIV viral load. 17 Apr 2019. Clin Infect Dis. ciz299,
  • Nasi M, Pinti M, De Biasi S, et al. Aging with HIV infection: A journey to the center of inflammAIDS, immunosenescence and neuroHIV. Immunol Lett. 2014;162(1 Pt B):329-333.
  • Nielsen K, Bryson YJ. Diagnosis of HIV infection in children. Pediatr Clin N Amer. 2000;47:39-63.
  • Pufall EL, Kall M, Shahmanesh M, et al. Sexualized drug use (‘chemsex’) and high-risk sexual behaviors in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. HIV Medicine. 2018;19(4)261-270.
  • Puthanakit T, Saphonn V, Ananworanich J, et al. Early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for children older than 1 year infected with HIV (PREDICT): A multicentre, randomised, open-label trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:933-941.
  • Ryan R, Dayaram YK, Schaible D, et al. Outcomes in older versus younger patients over 96 weeks in HIV-1-infected patients treated with rilpivirine or efavirenz in ECHO and THRIVE. Curr HIV Res. 2013;11:570-575.
  • Saag MS, Gandhi RT, Hoy JF, et al. Antiretroviral drugs for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults. 2020 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA panel. JAMA. 2020;324(16):1651-1669.
  • Sax PE, Wohl D, Yin MT, et al. Tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, coformulated with elvitegravir, cobicistat, and emtricitabine, for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: Two randomised, double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority trials. Lancet. 2015;385:2606-2615.
  • Scott GB, Hutto C, Makuch RW, et al. Survival in children with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:1791-1796.
  • Semples SJ, Strathdee SA, Zians J, et al. Sexual risk behavior associated with co-administration of methamphetamine and other drugs in a sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Am J Addict. 2009;18:65-72.
  • Silverberg MJ, Leyden W, Horberg MA, et al. Older age and the response to and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:684-691.
  • Skalski LM, Sikkema KJ, Heckman TG, et al. Coping styles and illicit drug use in older adults with HIV. Psych of Addict Behav. 2013 Dec; DOI:10/1037/a0031044.
  • Stuart D, Weymann J. Chemsex and care-planning: One year in practice. HIV Nursing Journal. 2015;15;(2)24-28.
  • Theall KP, Elifson KW, Sterk CE. Sex, touch, and HIV risk among ecstasy users. AIDS Behav. 2006;10:169-178.
  • Violari A, Cotton MF, Gibb DM, et al. Early antiretroviral therapy and mortality among HIV-infected infants. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2233-2244.
  • Zash R, Holmes L, Diseko M, et al. Neural-tube Defects and Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 29;381(9):827-840.
  • Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry Steering Committee. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry Interim Report for 1 January 1989 through 31 January 2020. Wilmington, NC: Registry Coordinating Center; 2020. Available from URL: Accessed August 13, 2020.
  • European AIDS Clinical Society. EACS Guidelines, version 10.1. October 2020. Available at: Accessed November 26, 2020
  • Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of Children Living with HIV. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection. Available at April 14, 2020. Accessed August 13, 2020.
  • Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. Available at December 12, 2019. Accessed August 13, 2020.
  • PENTA Writing Group. PENTA HIV First and Second Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines 2019. Available at: Accessed August 13, 2020.
  • World Health Organization. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Available at: Accessed August 13, 2020.
  • World Health Organization. Update of recommendations on first- and second-line antiretroviral regimens. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2019 (WHO/CDS/HIV/19.15). Available at: Accessed August 13, 2020.
  • World Health Organization. Potential safety issue affecting women living with HIV using dolutegravir at the time of conception. Geneva, Switzerland. May 18, 2018.
  • Coffin PO, Rowe C, Oman N, et al. Illicit opioid use following changes in opioids prescribed for chronic non-cancer pain among persons living with and without HIV. AIDS 2020: 23rd International AIDS Conference Virtual. July 6-10, 2020. Abstract PEB0347.
  • Guaraldi G, De Francesco D, Malagoli A, et al. Future challenges for clinical care of an ageing population infected with HIV: A "geriatric-HIV" modelling study. Program and abstracts of the 18th
    International Workshop on Co-morbidities and Adverse Drug Reactions in HIV; September 12-13, 2016; New York, New York. Abstract P06.
  • Nozza S, Calza S, Guaraldi G, et al. Use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in a cohort of HIV-infected geriatric patients (GEPPO cohort). HIV Drug Therapy, Glasgow 2018. October 28-31, 2018. Abstract P155.
  • Strain J, Smith RS, Cooley S, et al. Neuroimaging correlates of frailty, cognition, and HIV. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 429.
  • Sun J, Muzaale AD, Astemborski J, et al. Trends among persons with HIV and Injection Drug Use over 30 Years. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 891.
  • Tassiopoulos K, Abdo M, Koletar S, et al. Frailty status and risk of falls in HIV-infected older adults in the ACTG A5322 study. 9th International HIV and Aging Workshop. New York City. September 13-12, 2018.
  • Wit F, van der Valk M, Gisolf J, et al. Multimorbidity and risk of death differs by gender in people living with HIV in the Netherlands – the ATHENA cohort study. Abstract O115.
  • Wolf E, Christensen S, Diaz-Cuervo H. The economic burden of comorbidities among people living with HIV in Germany: a cohort analysis using health insurance claims data. HIV Drug Therapy, Glasgow 2018, October 28-31, 2018, Glasgow. Abstract O116.

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The American Academy of HIV Medicine is a professional organization that supports the HIV practitioner and promotes accessible, quality care for all Americans living with HIV disease. Our membership of HIV practitioners and credentialed HIV Specialists™, HIV Experts™, and HIV Pharmacists™ provide direct care to the majority of HIV patients in the US.