Hepatic Comorbidity & Coinfections

Module 16, Version 4


  • Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, et al. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV medicine association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:e1-e34.
  • Agarwal K, Brunetto M, Seto WK, et al. 96 weeks treatment of tenofovir alafenamide vs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for hepatitis B infection. J Hepatol. 2018 Apr; 68(4):672-681
  • Alter MJ, Hadler SC, Margolis HS, et al. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States. Need for alternative vaccination strategies. JAMA. 1990;263:1218-1222.
  • Alter MJ. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection. J Hepatol. 2006;44(1Suppl):S6-S9.
  • Bevilacqua E, Fabris A, Floreano P, et al. Genetic factors in mother-to-child transmission of HCV infection. Virology. 2009;390:64-70.
  • Boerekamps A, Newsum AM, Smit C, et al. High treatment uptake in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients after unrestricted access to direct-acting antivirals in the Netherlands. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 23. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix1004. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Boerekamps A, Weggheleire AD, van den Berk G, et al. Treatment of acute hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4 with 9 weeks of grazoprevir plus elbasvir (DAHHS2): an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 3b trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Apr;4(4):269-277
  • Braun D, Hampel BH, Martin E, et al. High number of potential transmitters revealed in a population-based systematic hepatitis C virus RNA screening among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. Feb 15 2019; 68(4):561-568.
  • Brook G, Soriano V, Bergin C. European guideline for the management of hepatitis B and C virus infections, 2010. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21:669-678.
  • Child C, Turcotte J. The liver and portal hypertension. In: Child CI, ed. Surgery and Portal Hypertension. Philadelphia, USA: W. B. Saunders, 1964:50-58.
  • Colin J, Cazals-Hatem D, Loriot M, et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Hepatol. 1999;29:1306-1310.
  • Dore G, Soriano V, Rockstroh J, et al. Frequent hepatitis B virus rebound among HIV-hepatitis B virus coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption. AIDS. 2010; 24:857-865.
  • European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection J Hepatol. 2017. 67; 370-398.
  • European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Recommendations on Treatment of Hepatitis C 2018. J Hepatol. 2018;69:461-511.
  • Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL, Seeff LB. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: An update. Hepatology. 2009;49:1335-1374.
  • Hadziyannis S, Papatheodoridis G. Hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic heptatitis B: Natural history and treatment. Semin Liver Dis. 2006; 26:130-141.
  • Heuft M, Houba S, van den Berk G, et al. Protective effect of hepatitis B virus-active antiretroviral therapy against primary hepatitis B virus infection. AIDS. 2014; 28:999-1005.
  • Hullegie SJ, van den Berk GE, Leyten EM, et al. Acute hepatitis C in the Netherlands: Characteristics of the epidemic in 2014. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22:209.e1-209.e3.
  • Kamath PS, Kim WR. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD). Hepatology. 2007;45:797-805.
  • Kao JH. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus. Korean J Intern Med. 2011;26:255-261.
  • Kronfi N, Bhatnager SR, Hull MW, et al. Trends in cause-specific mortality in HIV-hepatitis C coinfection following hepatitis C scale-up. AIDS. May 1 2019; 33(6);:1013-1022.
  • Launay O, Van der Vliet D, Rosenberg A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of 4 intramuscular double doses and 4 intradermal low doses vs standard hepatitis B vaccine regimen in adults with HIV-1: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011; 305:1432-1440.
  • Lin CL, Kao JH. Hepatitis B virus genotypes and variants. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015;5:a021436.
  • Linas BP, Wang B, Smurzynski M, et al. The impact of HIV/HCV coinfection on health care utilization and disability: Results of the ACTG Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) Cohort. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:506-512.
  • Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B: Update 2009. Hepatology. 2009;50:661-662.
  • Luetkemeyer A, Hare CB, Stansell J, et al. Clinical presentation and course of acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41:31-36.
  • Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, et al. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis c virus genotypes. Hepatology. 2015;61:77-87.
  • Negro F. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Europe. Dig Liver Dis. 2014;46 Suppl 5:S158-S164.
  • Nelson PK, Mathers BM, Cowie B, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: Results of systematic reviews. Lancet. 2011;378:571-583.
  • Pawlotsky JM, Tsakiris L, Roudot-Thoraval F, et al. Relationship between hepatitis C virus genotypes and sources of infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:1607-1610.
  • Splawn LM, Bailey CA, Medina JP et al.  Heplisav-B vaccination for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in adults in the United States.  Drugs Today (Barc). 2018;54(7):399-405.
  • Sulkowski M, Thomas D, Chaisson R, et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication accompanied by acute hepatitis in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:144-148.
  • Peters L, Mocroft A, Lundgren J, et al. HIV and hepatitis C co-infection in Europe, Israel and Argentina: A EuroSIDA perspective. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14 Suppl 6:S13.
  • Pinchoff J, Drobnik A, Bornschlegel K, et al. Deaths among people with hepatitis C in New York City, 2000-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:1047-1054.
  • Poordad F, Dieterich D. Treating hepatitis C: Current standard of care and emerging direct-acting antiviral agents. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19:449-464.
  • Rockstroh J, Lacombe K, Viani R, et al. Efficacy and safety of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus-1: the Expedition-2 Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 14;67(7):1010-1017.  
  • Ruane PJ, DeJesus E Berger D, et al. Antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of tenofovir alafenamide as 10-day monotherapy in HIV-1-positive adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:449-455. 
  • Ruys TA, den Hollander JG, Beld MG, et al. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C in homosexual men. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004;148:2309-2312. 
  • Saco TV, Strauss AT, Ledford DK. Hepatitis B vaccine non-responders: possible mechanisms and solutions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Sep;121(3):320-327.
  • Sax PE, Wohl D, Yin MT, et al. Tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, coformulated with elvitegravir, cobicistat, and emtricitabine, for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: Two randomised, double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority trials. Lancet. 2015;385:2606-2615.
  • Sherman K. Management of the hepatitis B virus/HIV-coinfected patient. Top Antivir Med. 2015;23:111-114.
  • Shire N, Rouster S, Rajicic N, et al. Occult hepatitis B in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;36:869-875.
  • Smith DB, Bukh J, Kuiken C, et al. Expanded classification of hepatitis C virus into 7 genotypes and 67 subtypes: Updated criteria and genotype assignment Web resource. Hepatology. 2014;59:318-327.
  • Terrault N, Lok AS, McMahon BJ, et al. Update on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 Hepatitis B Guidance. Hepatology. 2018;67:1560-1599.
  • van de Laar TJ, Matthews GV, Prins M, et al. Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: An emerging sexually transmitted infection. AIDS. 2010;24:1799-1812. 
  • van de Laar TJ, van der Bij AK, Prins M, et al. Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:230-238.
  • Wandeler G, Gsponer T, Bregenzer A, et al. Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: A rapidly evolving epidemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1408-1416.
  • Weber R, Sabin CA, Friis-Moller N, et al. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D study. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1632-1641.
  • World Health Organization. People who inject drugs. Available at: http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/idu/en/. Accessed May 10, 2017 Wyles D, Brau N, Kottilil S, et al. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for the treatment of hepatitis C virus in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type1:an open-label, phase 3 study. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 July 1; 65(1):6-12
  • Zahnd C, Salazar-Vizcaya L, Dufour JF, et al. Modelling the impact of deferring HCV treatment on liver-related complications in HIV coinfected men who have sex with men. J Hepatol. 2016;65:26-32.
  • Zeuzem S, Franke A, Lee JH, Herrmann G, Ruster B, Roth WK. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus isolates and their correlation to viremia, liver function tests, and histology. Hepatology. 1996;24:1003-1009.
  • Zhu YY, Mao YZ, Wu WL, Cai QX, Lin XH. Does hepatitis B virus prenatal transmission result in postnatal immunoprophylaxis failure? Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1836-1841.
  • Agarwal K, Fung S, Seto WK, et al. A phase III study comparing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with HBeAg- positive, chronic hepatitis B (CHB): Efficacy and safety results at week 96. . Program and abstracts of the 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver annual meeting; April 19-23, 2017; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract FRI-153.
  • Boesecke C, Martinez EM, Nelson M, et al. PROBE-C Study: rate of spontaneous clearance of acute HCV in persons with HIV. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 129.
  • Boerekamps A, van den Berk G, Lauw F, et al. Substantial decline in acute HCV infections among Dutch HIV+MSM after DAA roll out. Program and abstracts of the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 13-16, 2017; Seattle, Washington. Abstract 137LB.
  • Braun D, Hampel BH, Nguyen H, et al. A treatment as prevention trial to eliminate HCV in HIV+ MSM: the Swiss HCVree Trial. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 81LB.
  • Brunetto M, Lim YS, Gane E, et al. A phase III study comparing tenofovir alafenamide to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with HBeAg-negative, chronic hepatitis B: Efficacy and safety results at week 96. Program and abstracts of the 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver annual meeting; April 19-23, 2017; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract PS-042.

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