Hepatic Comorbidity & Coinfections

Module 16, Version 4


  • Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, et al. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV medicine association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:e1-e34.
  • Agarwal K, Brunetto M, Seto WK, et al. 96 weeks treatment of tenofovir alafenamide vs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for hepatitis B infection. J Hepatol. 2018 Apr; 68(4):672-681.
  • Alter MJ. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection. J Hepatol. 2006;44(1Suppl):S6-S9.
  • Bevilacqua E, Fabris A, Floreano P, et al. Genetic factors in mother-to-child transmission of HCV infection. Virology. 2009;390:64-70.
  • Boerekamps A, Weggheleire AD, van den Berk G, et al. Treatment of acute hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4 with 9 weeks of grazoprevir plus elbasvir (DAHHS2): an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 3b trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;4(4):269-277.
  • Braun D, Hampel BH, Ledergerber B, et al. A treatment as prevention trial to eliminate hepatitis C among men who have sex with men living with HIV in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa1124. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1124. Online ahead of print.
  • Braun D, Hampel BH, Martin E, et al. High number of potential transmitters revealed in a population-based systematic hepatitis C virus RNA screening among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(4):561-568.
  • Cento V, Chevaliez S, Perno CF, et al. Resistance to direct-acting antiviral agents: clinical utility and significance. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2015;10(5):381-9.
  • Child C, Turcotte J. The liver and portal hypertension. In: Child CI, ed. Surgery and Portal Hypertension. Philadelphia, USA: W. B. Saunders, 1964:50-58.
  • Colin J, Cazals-Hatem D, Loriot M, et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Hepatol. 1999;29:1306-1310.
  • Dore G, Soriano V, Rockstroh J, et al. Frequent hepatitis B virus rebound among HIV-hepatitis B virus coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption. AIDS. 2010;24:857-865.
  • El-Sadr WM, Lundgren JD, Neaton JD, et al., Smart-Study-Group. CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(22):2283-2296.
  • Eron JJ, Young B, Cooper DA, et al. Switch to a raltegravir-based regimen versus continuation of a lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen in stable HIV-infected patients with suppressed viraemia (SWITCHMRK 1 and 2): two multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2010;375(9712):396-407.
  • European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2017;67:370-398.
  • European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Recommendations on Treatment of Hepatitis C 2020. J Hepatol. 2020;73:41170-1218.
  • Ghany MG, Morgan TR, AASLD-IDSA Hepatitis C Guidance Panel. Hepatitis C Guidance 2019 Update: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases-Infectious Diseases Society of America Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Hepatology. 2020;71(2):686-721. http://www.hcvguidelines.org.
  • Gunthard HF, Aberg JA, Eron JJ, et al. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA panel. JAMA. 2014;312(4):410-425.
  • Hadziyannis S, Papatheodoridis G. Hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B: Natural history and treatment. Semin Liver Dis. 2006;26:130-141.
  • Heuft M, Houba S, van den Berk G, et al. Protective effect of hepatitis B virus-active antiretroviral therapy against primary hepatitis B virus infection. AIDS. 2014;28:999-1005.
  • Kamath PS, Kim WR. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD). Hepatology. 2007;45:797-805.
  • Kao JH. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus. Korean J Intern Med. 2011;26:255-261.
  • Kronfi N, Bhatnager SR, Hull MW, et al. Trends in cause-specific mortality in HIV-hepatitis C coinfection following hepatitis C scale-up. AIDS. 2019;33(6):1013-1022.
  • Launay O, Van der Vliet D, Rosenberg A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of 4 intramuscular double doses and 4 intradermal low doses vs standard hepatitis B vaccine regimen in adults with HIV-1: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;305:1432-1440.
  • Lin CL, Kao JH. Hepatitis B virus genotypes and variants. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015;5:a021436.
  • Linas BP, Wang B, Smurzynski M, et al. The impact of HIV/HCV coinfection on health care utilization and disability: Results of the ACTG Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) Cohort. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:506-512.
  • Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B: Update 2009. Hepatology. 2009;50:661-662.
  • Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, et al. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis c virus genotypes. Hepatology. 2015;61:77-87.
  • Naggie S, Cooper C, Saag M, et al. Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir for HCV in patients coinfected with HIV-1. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:705-713.
  • Patel SV, Jayaweera DT, Althoff KN, et al. Real-world efficacy of direct acting antiviral therapies in patients with HIV/HCV. PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0228847.
  • Pawlotsky JM, Tsakiris L, Roudot-Thoraval F, et al. Relationship between hepatitis C virus genotypes and sources of infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:1607-1610.
  • Pinchoff J, Drobnik A, Bornschlegel K, et al. Deaths among people with hepatitis C in New York City, 2000-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:1047-1054.
  • Poordad F, Dieterich D. Treating hepatitis C: Current standard of care and emerging direct-acting antiviral agents. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19:449-464.
  • Rockstroh J, Lacombe K, Viani R, et al. Efficacy and safety of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus-1: the Expedition-2 Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(7):1010-1017.
  • Rockstroh JK, Nelson M, Katlama C, et al. Efficacy and safety of grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) in patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV coinfection (C-EDGE COINFECTION): A non-randomised, open-label trial. Lancet HIV. 2015;2:e319-e327.
  • Ruane PJ, DeJesus E Berger D, et al. Antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of tenofovir alafenamide as 10-daymonotherapy in HIV-1-positive adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:449-455.
  • Saco TV, Strauss AT, Ledford DK. Hepatitis B vaccine non-responders: possible mechanisms and solutions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018 Sep;121(3):320-327.
  • Sax PE, Wohl D, Yin MT, et al. Tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, coformulated with elvitegravir, cobicistat, and emtricitabine, for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: Two randomised, double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority trials. Lancet. 2015;385:2606-2615.
  • Sherman K. Management of the hepatitis B virus/HIV-coinfected patient. Top Antivir Med. 2015;23:111-114.
  • Shire N, Rouster S, Rajicic N, et al. Occult hepatitis B in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;36:869-875.
  • Smith DB, Bukh J, Kuiken C, et al. Expanded classification of hepatitis C virus into 7 genotypes and 67 subtypes: Updated criteria and genotype assignment Web resource. Hepatology. 2014;59:318-327.
  • Splawn LM, Bailey CA, Medina JP, et al. Heplisav-B vaccination for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in adults in the United States. Drugs Today (Barc). 2018;54(7):399-405.
  • Spradling PR, Richardson JT, Buchacz K, et al. Trends in hepatitis C virus infection among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study, 1996-2007. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53(3):388-96.
  • Sulkowski M, Thomas D, Chaisson R, et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication accompanied by acute hepatitis in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:144-148.
  • Surial B, Béguelin C, Chave J-P, et al. Switching from TDF to TAF in HIV/HBV co-infected individuals with renal dysfunction - a prospective cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 Jul 2;doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002429. Online ahead of print.
  • Tedaldi E, Peters L, Neuhaus J, et al. Opportunistic disease and mortality in patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus in the strategic management of antiretroviral therapy (SMART) study. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(11):1468-1475.
  • Terrault NA, Dodge JL, Murphy EL, et al. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: The HCV partner study. Hepatology. 2013;57:881-889
  • Terrault NA, Lok AS, McMahon BJ, et al. Update on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 Hepatitis B Guidance. Hepatology. 2018;67:1560-1599.
  • Thorpe J, Saeed S, Moodie EE, Klein MB. Antiretroviral treatment interruption leads to progression of liver fibrosis in HIV-hepatitis C virus co-infection. AIDS. 2011;25(7):967-975.
  • Wandeler G, Gsponer T, Bregenzer A, et al. Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: A rapidly evolving epidemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1408-1416.
  • Weber R, Sabin CA, Friis-Moller N, et al. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D study. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1632-1641.
  • Wyles D, Brau N, Kottilil S, et al. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for the treatment of hepatitis C virus in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type1: an open-label, phase 3 study. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(1):6-12.
  • Zahnd C, Salazar-Vizcaya L, Dufour JF, et al. Modelling the impact of deferring HCV treatment on liver-related complications in HIV coinfected men who have sex with men. J Hepatol. 2016;65:26-32.
  • Zeuzem S, Franke A, Lee JH, Herrmann G, Ruster B, Roth WK. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus isolates and their correlation to viremia, liver function tests, and histology. Hepatology. 1996;24:1003-1009.
  • Agarwal K, Fung S, Seto WK, et al. A phase III study comparing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with HBeAg- positive, chronic hepatitis B (CHB): Efficacy and safety results at week 96. Program and abstracts of the 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver annual meeting; April 19-23, 2017; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract FRI-153.
  • Boesecke C, Martinez EM, Nelson M, et al. PROBE-C Study: rate of spontaneous clearance of acute HCV in persons with HIV. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 129.
  • Brunetto M, Lim YS, Gane E, et al. A phase III study comparing tenofovir alafenamide to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with HBeAg-negative, chronic hepatitis B: Efficacy and safety results at week 96. Program and abstracts of the 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver annual meeting; April 19-23, 2017; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract PS-042.

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