Many research reports identify cognitive impairment in adults with HIV. Tracing this impairment to HIV infection itself has been elusive. This paper investigates whether physical activity and associated cardiovascular risk may underlie these reported increased rates of cognitive impairment. The study used 988 participants (20% women) with well-controlled HIV infection at entry into the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Protocol A5322 (HAILO). The cardiometabolic risk profiles between women and men with HIV were assessed.