HIV Transmission Prevention

Module 3, Version 4


  • Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, Frohlich JA, et al. Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, Marrazzo JM, Ramjee G, Richardson BA, et al. Tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:509-518.
  • Adler, NE, Overview of health disparities. In: G. E. Thompson, F. Mitchell, and M. Williams, eds. Examining the health disparities research plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished business. Washington, DC: National Academic Press, 2006;129-188.
  • Aidala AA, Wilson MG, Shubert V, et al. Housing status, medical care, and health outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review. Am J Public Health. 2015;e1-e23.
  • Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, et al. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: The ANRS 1265 trial. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e298.
  • Baeten JM. Donnell D, Ndase P, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:399-410.
  • Baeten JM, Palanee-Phillips T, Brown ER, et al. Use of a Vaginal Ring Containing Dapivirine for HIV-1 Prevention in Women. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375:2121-2132.
  • Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369:643.
  • Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in healthcare settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55:1-17.
  • Busch MP, Kleinman SF, Nemo GJ. Current and emerging infectious risks of blood transfusions. JAMA. 2003;289:959-962.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV transmission through transfusion – Missouri and Colorado, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1335-1339.
  • Celentano DD, Lucas G. Optimizing treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients with substance abuse issues. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45 Supp 4:S318-S323.
  • Chen M, Rhodes PH, Hall HI, et al. Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among persons aged ≥13 years—National HIV Surveillance System, United States, 2005-2008. MMWR Supp. 2012;61:57-64.
  • Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasamai P, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013;381:2083–2090.
  • Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:493-505.
  • Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med 2016; 375:830-839.
  • Cranston RD, Dezzutti CS, Siegel A,et al. A multiple dose phase I assessment of rilpivirine long-acting in a model of pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2019 May 31. doi: 10.1089/AID.2018.0265. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Dai JY, Hedrix CW, Richardson BA, et al. Pharmacological measures of treatment adherence and risk of HIV infection in the VOICE study. J Infect Dis. 2016;213:335-342.
  • Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2587-2599.
  • Delany-Moretlwe SA, Lombard C, Baron D, et al. Tenofovir 1% vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women in South Africa (FACTS 001): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Nov;18(11):1241-1250.
  • Ford N, Mayer KH, for the World Health Organization Postexposure Prophylaxis Guideline Development Group. WHO Guidelines for HIV PEP. CID 2015:60 (Suppl 3). S161.
  • Garcia J, Parker C, Parker RG, et al. “You’re really gonna kick us all out?” Sustaining safe spaces for community-based HIV prevention and control among black men who have sex with men. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0141326.
  • Grant RM, Mannheimer S, Hughes JP, et al. Daily and Nondaily Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis in Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Trials Network 067/ADAPT Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 1;66(11):1712-1721.
  • Gray RH, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: A randomized trial. Lancet. 2007;369:657-666.
  • Giannou FK, Tsiara CG, Nikolopoulos GK, et al. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on HIV serodiscordant couples. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2015;16:1-11.
  • Gunawardana M, Remedios-Chan M, Miller CS, et al. Pharmacokinetics of Long-Acting Tenofovir Alafenamide (GS-7340) Subdermal Implant for HIV Prophylaxis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. July 2015 vol. 59 no. 7 3913-3919.
  • Heimer R, Grau LE, Curtin E, et al. Assessment of HIV testing of urban injection drug users: Implications for expansion of HIV testing and prevention efforts. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:119-126.
  • Kerr T, Kimber J, Debeck K, et al. The role of safer injection facilities in the response to HIV/AIDS among injection drug users. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2007;4:158-164.
  • Kleinman SH, Lelie N, Busch MP. Infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus and risk of transmission by transfusion. Transfusion. 2009;49:2454-2489.
  • Hosein SR and Wilson DP. Decision-making by people living with HIV requires communications from clinicians about the risk of transmission despite undetectable plasma viral load. HIV Medicine. 2011; 12:516.
  • Karim Q, et al. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 425-514, I1-I2, A1-A14.
  • Kennedy CE, Medley AM, Sweat MD, et al. Behavioral interventions for HIV positive prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88: 615-623.
  • Krakower DS, Mayer KH. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection: current status, future opportunities, and challenges. Drugs. 2015;75:243–251.
  • Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, et al. Updated USPHS guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for post-exposure prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:875-892.
  • Landovitz R, Grinsztejn B, Dawood H, et al. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of long-acting injectable cabotegravir in low-risk HIV-uninfected individuals: HPTN 077, a phase 2a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2018 Nov 8;15(11):e1002690. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002690. eCollection 2018 Nov.
  • Landovitz RJ, Zangeneh SZ, Chau G, et al. Cabotegravir is not associated with weight gain in HIV-negative individuals in HPTN 077. 2019 May 24. pii: ciz439. doi:Clin Infect Dis. 10.1093/cid/ciz439. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Ledgerwood JE, Coates EE, Yamshchikov G, et al. Safety, pharmacokinetics and neutralization of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1 human monoclonal antibody VRC01 in healthy adults. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015;182:289-301.
  • Lehman DA, Baeten JM, McCoy CO, et al. Risk of drug resistance among persons acquiring HIV within a randomized clinical trial of single- or dual-agent prophylaxis. J Infect Dis. 2015;211:1211-1218.
  • Lourenco L, Colley G, Nosyk B, et al. STOP HIV/AIDS Study Group. High levels of heterogeneity in the HIV cascade of care across different population subgroups in British Columbia, Canada. PLoS One. 2014; 9(12): e115277.
  • MacArthur GJ, van Velzen E, Palmateer N, et al. Interventions to prevent HIV and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: a review of reviews to assess evidence of effectiveness. Int J Drug Policy. 2014;25:34-52.
  • Markowitz M, Frank I, Grant RM, et al. Safety and tolerability of long-acting cabotegravir injections in HIV-uninfected men (ÉCLAIR): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2A trial. Lancet HIV. 2017 Aug;4(8):e331-e340.
  • Marks G, Crepaz N, Senterfitt JW, et al. Meta-analysis of high-risk sexual behavior in persons aware and unaware they are infected with HIV in the United States: implications for HIV prevention programs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39:446-453.
  • Metzger DS, Zhang Y. Drug treatment as HIV prevention: expanding treatment options. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010;7:220-225.
  • Molina JM, Charreau I, Chidiac C, et al. Post-exposure prophylaxis with doxycycline to prevent sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men: an open-label randomised substudy of the ANRS IPERGAY trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Mar;18(3):308-317.
  • Mulligan K, Glidden DV, Anderson PL, et al. Effects of Emtricitabine/Tenofovir on bone mineral density in HIV-negative persons in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:572-580.
  • Nel A, van Niekerk N, Kapiqa S, et al. Safety and Efficacy of a Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV Prevention in Women. N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 1;375(22):2133-2143.’
  • Nosyk B, Min JE, Evans E, et al. The effects of opioid substitution treatment and highly active antiretroviral therapy on the cause-specific risk of mortality among HIV-positive people who inject drugs. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:1157-1165.
  • Pettifor A, Bekker L-G, Hosek S, et al. Preventing HIV among young people: research priorities for the future. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63 Suppl 2: S155-S160.
  • Pilkington V, Hill A, Hughes S, et al. How safe is TDF/FTC as PrEP? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of adverse events in 13 randomised trials of PrEP. J Virus Erad. 2018 Oct 1;4(4):215-224.
  • Schlesinger E, Johengen D, Luecke E, et al. A Tunable, Biodegradable, Thin-Film Polymer Device as a Long-Acting Implant Delivering Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate for HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. Pharm Res. 2016;33:1649-1656.
  • Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks JJ, et al. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2009;2:CD003362.
  • Siegler AJ, Mouhanna F, Mera-Giler R, et al. The prevalence of pre-exposure prophylaxis use and the pre-exposure prophylaxis-to-need ratio in the fourth quarter of 2017, United States. Ann Epidemiol. 2018 Dec;28(12):841-849.
  • Smith DK, Herbst JH, Zhang XJ, et al. Condom effectiveness for HIV prevention by consistency of use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the US. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68:337-344.
  • Solomon MM, Lama JR, Glidden DV, et al. Changed in renal function associated with oral FTC/TDF use for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. AIDS. 2014;28:851-859.
  • Strathdee SA, Shoptaw S, Dyer TP, et al. Substance Use Scientific Committee of the HIV Prevention Trials Network. Towards combination HIV prevention for injection drug users: addressing addictophobia, apathy, and inattention. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7:320-325.
  • Thigpen MC, et al. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:423-434.
  • USPSTF. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement [published online June 11, 2019]. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.6390. Accessed June 22, 2019.
  • Wagner Z, Wu Y, Sood N. The Affordable Care Act may increase the number of people getting tested for HIV by nearly 500,000 by 2017. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014;33:378-385.
  • Weiss HA, Hankins CA, and Dickson K. Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9:669-677.
  • Wiysonge CS, Kongnyuy EJ, Shey M, et al. Male circumcision for prevention of homosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;6:CD007496.
  • Yuan T, Fitzpatrick T, Ka NY, et al. Circumcision to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of global data. Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Apr;7(4):e436-e447.
  • Zanakis SH, Alvarez C, Li V. Socio-economic determinants of HIV/AIDS pandemic and nations efficiencies. Eur Journal Operational Research 2007; 176: 1811-1838.
  • Zou S, Dorsey KA, Notari EP, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections among United States blood donors since the introduction of nucleic acid testing. Transfusion. 2010;50:1495-1504.
  • Baeten J, Palanee-Phillips T, Mgodi N, et al. High update and reduced HIV-1 incidence in an open-label trial of the dapivirine ring. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract. 143LB.
  • Bekker L-G. Meeting the “Go” criteria: immunogenicity from HVTN100, a phase 1–2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of clade C ALVAC-® (vCP2438) and bivalent subtype C gp120/MF59® in HIV-uninfected South African adults. 21st International AIDS Conference, Durban, abstract TUAX0102LB, 2016.
  • Cohen MS, et al. Final results of the HPTN 052 randomized controlled trial: antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV transmission. Program and abstracts of the 8th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment & Prevention; July 19-22, 2015; Vancouver, Canada. Abstract MOAC0101LB.
  • Hosek S, Rudy B, Landowitz R, et al. An HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) demonstration project and safety study for young men who have sex with men in the United States (ATN 110). Program and abstracts of the 8th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment & Prevention; July 19-22, 2015; Vancouver, Canada. Abstract TUAC0204LB.
  • Nel A, Van Niekerk N, Van Baelen B, et al. HIV incidence and adherence in DREAM: an open-label trial of dapivirine vaginal ring. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 144LB.
  • Smith D, Van Handel M, Grey JA. By race/ethnicity, blacks have highest number needing PrEP in the United States, 2015. CROI 2018. March 4-7, 2018. Boston, MA. Abstract 86.
  • Tolley E, Zangeneh SZ, Chau G, et al. Acceptability of long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB LA) in HIV-uninfected individuals: HPTN 077. HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P), October 21-25, 2018, Madrid. Abstract OA05.01.

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The American Academy of HIV Medicine is a professional organization that supports the HIV practitioner and promotes accessible, quality care for all Americans living with HIV disease. Our membership of HIV practitioners and credentialed HIV Specialists™, HIV Experts™, and HIV Pharmacists™ provide direct care to the majority of HIV patients in the US.