of Transmission
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    Epidemiology and
    the Spread of HIV
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    HIV Transmission
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Core Curriculum


Thumbnail for Module 1. HIV Epidemiology & Spread

While the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections is declining in many countries, the number of people living with HIV continues to increase, largely due to improved access to antiretroviral medications.

Thumbnail for Module 2. Mechanisms of Transmission

HIV can be transmitted in any interaction where blood or bodily fluids are intimately exchanged. That includes sexual contact, injection drug use, and pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. 

Thumbnail for Module 3. HIV Transmission Prevention

Effective strategies to prevent HIV transmission combine several types of interventions, including behavioral, structural, and biomedical; targeted at both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons.

Thumbnail for Module 4. Immunology

After HIV infection occurs, chronic inflammation results in translocation of microbial products across gut mucosa, lymph node scarring, and dysregulation of T-cell homeostasis and antigen presentation.

Thumbnail for Module 5. Overview of ARV Therapy

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved greatly in the thirty-years since its inception from a single toxic agent to highly tolerable, highly effective, triple-drug therapy.

Thumbnail for Module 6. Classes of ARV Medications

A complete ARV regimen combines drugs targeting different steps in the HIV lifecycle. Guideline committees examine evidence to recommend first-line and later treatment.

Thumbnail for Module 7. Initiation of ARV Therapy

Both US and European HIV treatment guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-infected persons, starting as soon after diagnosis as the patient is ready. 

Thumbnail for Module 8. Multidrug-Resistant HIV

Viral-load testing is an important aspect of treatment monitoring. When virologic failure occurs, a regimen may be modified to support continued suppression of viral replication.

Thumbnail for Module 9. ART for Special Populations

HIV-positive pregnant women, infants, children, injection drug users, and older adults present specific and important challenges for treatment and monitoring.

Thumbnail for Module 10. Antiretroviral Resistance

Mediated by mutations allowing HIV replication in the presence of ART, ARV resistance can be transmitted at time of infection or acquired during periods of nonsuppression.

Thumbnail for Module 11. Understanding PK and PD

Drug-drug interactions are common with all classes of the ARVs. Avoiding DDIs may be difficult in patients who have other comorbidities or coinfections.

Thumbnail for Module 12. Renal Comorbidity

Understanding the epidemiology and risk factors for renal disease in HIV+ patients helps clinicians distinguish among a broad spectrum of renal diseases in this population.

Thumbnail for Module 13. Bone Complications of HIV

HIV+ persons are at higher risk for bone loss and subsequent fractures than uninfected persons. Demographic, lifestyle, HIV-specific, and ART-specific risk factors contribute to bone loss.

Thumbnail for Module 14. CV Complications of HIV

The HIV+ population exhibits a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking, poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, substance abuse, stress, and mental illness.

Thumbnail for Module 15. Neurologic Complications

An array of neurologic complications may be caused by, or affected by the HIV virus and its treatment. These issues can impact choice and timing of antiretroviral therapy.

Thumbnail for Module 16. Hepatic Coinfection

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are common coinfections in HIV+ patients. Liver disease related to these infections is a frequent cause of mortality in coinfected patients.


Phone: 202-659-0699
Fax: 202-659-0976


AAHIVM National Office
1705 DeSales Street NW, Suite 700
Washington, D.C. 20036


The American Academy of HIV Medicine is a professional organization that supports the HIV practitioner and promotes accessible, quality care for all Americans living with HIV disease. Our membership of HIV practitioners and credentialed HIV Specialists™, HIV Experts™, and HIV Pharmacists™ provide direct care to the majority of HIV patients in the US.