Neurologic Complications of HIV

Module 15, Version 4


  • Alfahad T, Nath A. Update on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2013;13:387.
  • American Academy of Neurology. Opportunistic and fungal infections of the central nervous system. Neurol Continuum. 2002;8:125.
  • American Academy of Neurology. Opportunistic infections: Toxoplasmosis. The Neurologic complications of AIDS. Neurol Continuum. 2000;6:128-149.
  • American Academy of Neurology. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS. The Neurologic complications of AIDS. Neurol Continuum. 2000;6:177-185.
  • Anders HJ, Goebel FD. Neurological manifestations of cytomegalovirus infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J STD AIDS. 1999;10:151-161. 
  • Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker JT, et al. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology. 2007;69:1789-1799.
  • Banerjee S, McCutchan JA, Ances BM, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia in combination antiretroviral-treated HIV-positive individuals: Potential impact on HIV sensory polyneuropathy. AIDS. 2011;25:F1-F6.
  • Banks LT, Geraci A, Liu M, et al. A natural history of HIV myelopathy in the HAART era. Neurology. 2002;A441.
  • Birbeck G, French J, Perucca E, et al. Evidence-based guideline: Antiepileptic drug selection for people with HIV/AIDS: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Ad Hoc Task Force of the Commission on Therapeutic Strategies of the International League Against Epilepsy. Neurology. 2012: 78;139-145.
  • Boisse L, Gill M J, Power C. HIV infection of the central nervous system: Clinical features and neuropathogenesis. Neurol Clin. 2008;26:799-819.
  • Bonnet F, Amieva H, Marquant F, et al. Cognitive disorders in HIV-infected patients: Are they HIV-related? AIDS. 2013;27:391-400.
  • Boulware DR, Meya DB, Muzoora C, et al. Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2487-2498.
  • Brannagan TH 3rd, Zhou Y. HIV associated Guillian-Barre' syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 2003;208:39-42.
  • Carvalhal A, Gill MJ, Letendre SL, et al. Central nervous system penetration effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs and neuropsychological impairment in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study. J Neurovirol. 2016;22:349-357.
  • Chong J, Di Rocco A, Tagliati M, Danisi F, Simpson DM, Atlas SW. MR findings in AIDS-associated myelopathy. Amer J Neuroradiol. 1999;20:1412-1416.
  • Cinque P, Cleator GM, Weber T, et al. Diagnosis and clinical management of neurological disorders caused by cytomegalovirus in AIDS patients. J Neurovirol. 1998;4:120-132.
  • Clotet B, Feinberg J, van Lunzen J, et al. Once-daily dolutegravir versus darunavir plus ritonavir in antiretroviral-naïve adults with HIV-1 infection (FLAMINGO): 48 week results from the randomised open-label phase IIIb study. Lancet. 2014;383:2222-2231.
  • Cornblath DR, McArthur JC. Predominantly sensory neuropathy in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. Neurology. 1988;38:794-796.
  • Daar ES, Tierney C, Fischl M, et al. Atazanavir plus ritonavir or efavirenz as part of a 3-drug regimen for initial treatment of HIV-1. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:445-456.
  • Dalakas MC, Cupler EJ. Neuropathies in HIV infection. Baillieres Clin Neurol. 1996;5:199-218.
  • Dal Pan GJ, Glass JD, McArthur JC. Clinicopathologic correlations of HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy: An autopsy-based case-control study. Neurology. 1994;4:2159-2164.
  • De Boer MG, van den Berk G, van Holten N, et al. Intolerance of dolutegravir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy regimens in real-life clinical practice. AIDS. 2016 Nov 28;30(18):2831-2834.
  • DeVivo DC, Percy AK, Chiriboga CA, et al. Neuromuscular disorders in HIV-1 infection. Continuum. 2000;6:73-76.
  • Dimachkie MM, Barohn RJ. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2013;15:350-66.
  • Di Rocco A, Simpson DM. AIDS-associated vacuolar myelopathy. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 1998;12:457-461.
  • Di Rocco A. Diseases of the spinal cord in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Semin Neurol. 1999;19:151-155.
  • Dorfman D, George MC, Schnur J, et al. Hypnosis for treatment of HIV neuropathic pain: A preliminary report. Pain Med. 2013;14:1048-1056.
  • Ellis RJ, Rosario D, Clifford DB, et al. Continued high prevalence and adverse clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: The CHARTER Study. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:552-558.
  • Ellis RJ, Letendre SL, Vaida F, et al. Randomized trial of central nervous system targeted antiretrovirals for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:1015-1022.
  • ENCORE1 Study Group, Puls R, Amin J, et al. Efficacy of 400 mg efavirenz versus standard 600 mg dose in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve adults (ENCORE1): A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial.Lancet. 2014;383:1474-1482.
  • Evaluation and management of intracranial mass lesions in AIDS: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 1998;50:21-26.
  • Evans SR, Ellis RJ, Chen H, et al. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: Prevalence and risk factors. AIDS. 2011;25:919-928.
  • Fettiplace A, Stainsby C, Winston A, et al. Psychiatric symptoms in patients receiving dolutegravir. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 April 1; 74(4):423-431.
  • French MA, Lenzo N, John M, et al. Immune restoration disease after the treatment of immunodeficient HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2000;1:107-115.
  • Gabbai AA, Castelo A, Oliveira AS. HIV peripheral neuropathy. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;115:515-529.
  • Gambarin KH, Hamill RJ. Management of increased intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis. Curr Infect Dis Reports. 2002;4:332-338.
  • Grant PM, Komarow L, Andersen J, et al. Risk factor analyses for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a randomized study of early vs deferred ART during an opportunistic infection. PLOS One. 2010;5:e11416.
  • Hamada Y, Watanabe K, Aoki T, et al. Primary HIV infection with acute transverse myelitis. Intern Med. 2011;50:1615-1617.
  • Hasbun R. The acute aseptic meningitis syndrome. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2000;2:345-351.
  • Hasbun R, Eraso J, Ramireddy S, et al. Screening for neurocognitive impairment in HIV individuals: The utility of the Montreal cognitive assessment test. J AIDS Clinic Res. 2012;3:10.
  • Heemskerk AD, Bang ND, Thwaites GE. Therapy for tuberculous meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:2188-2189.
  • Hughes RA, Gabriel CM, Gregson NA, Smith KJ. Treatment of inflammatory neuropathy. Mult Scler. 1997;3:88-92.
  • Hoffman C, Welz T, Sabranski M, et al. Higher rates of neuropsychiatric adverse events leading to dolutegravir discontinuation in women and older patients. HIV Medicine. 10 November 2016.
  • Huis in’t Veld D, Sun HY, Hung CC, Colebunders R. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome related to HIV co-infections: A review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:1413-1419.
  • Hsu R, Fusco J, Heneger C, et al. Psychiatric outcomes observed in patients living with HIV using six common antiretrovirals in the Observational Pharmaco-Epidemiology Research and Analysis database. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2018 Oct 29;9(12):675-686.
  • Keswani SC, Polley M, Pardo CA, et al. Schwann cell chemokine receptors mediate HIV-1 gp120 toxicity to sensory neurons. Arch Neurol. 2003;54:287-296.
  • Leger JM, Bouche P, Bolgert F, et al. The spectrum of polyneuropathies in patients infected with HIV. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 1989;52:1369-1374.
  • Letendre S. Central nervous system complications in HIV Disease: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Top Antivir Med. 2011;19:137-142.
  • Letendre S, Mills A, Hagins D, et al. Distribution in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) of Cabotegravir (CAB) and Rilpivirine (RPV) After Intramuscular Administration of Long-Acting (LA) Injectable Suspensions in HIV-1-Infected Patients. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2018. 21(S8):e25187.
  • Lindenbaum Y, Kissel JT, Mendell JR. Treatment approaches for Guillain-Barre’ syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy. Neurol Clin. 2001;19:187-204.
  • Llibre JM, Montoliu A, Miro JM, et al. Discontinuation of dolutegravir, elvitegravir/cobicistat and raltegravir because of toxicity in a prospective cohort. HIV Med. 2019 Mar;20(3):237-247.
  • Manns A, Hisada M, La Grenade L. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection. Lancet. 1999;353:1951-1958.
  • Markarian Y, Wulff EA, Simpson DM. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease. AIDS Clin Care. 1998;10:89-91,93,98.
  • Martin F, Taylor GP. Prospects for the management of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy. AIDS Rev. 2011;13:161-170.
  • Maschke M, Kastrup O, Diener HC. CNS manifestations of cytomegalovirus infections diagnosis and treatment. CNS Drugs. 2002;16:303-315.
  • McCutchan JA. Cytomegalovirus infections of the nervous system in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20:747-754.
  • The Mind Exchange Working Group. Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: A consensus report of the Mind Exchange Program. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1004-1017.
  • Mishra BB, Sommers W, Koski CL, Greenstein JI. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1985;18:131-132.
  • Nichols, M, Gates T, Soares JR, et al. Atrophic brain signatures of mild forms of neurocognitive impairment in virally suppressed HIV infection. AIDS. 2019 Jan 27;33(1):55-66.
  • Pardo CA, McArthur JC, Griffin JW. HIV neuropathy: Insights in the pathology of HIV peripheral nerve disease. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2001;6:21-27.
  • Parry O, Mielke J, Latif AS, et al. Peripheral neuropathy in individuals with HIV infection in Zimbabwe. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 1997;96:218-222.
  • Perfect JR, Dismukes WE, Dromer F, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of cryptococcal disease: 2010 Update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;50:291-322.
  • Petito CK, Vecchio D, Chen YT. HIV antigen and DNA in AIDS spinal cords correlate with macrophage infiltration but not with vacuolar myelopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1994;53:86-94.
  • Phillips TJ, Cherry CL, Cox S, et al. Pharmacological treatment of painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLOS One. 2010;5:e14433.
  • Piliero PJ, Fish DG, Preston S, et al. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with immune reconstitution. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:e111-e114.
  • Pillat MM, Bauer ME, de Oliveira AC, Ulrich H, Casseb, J. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP): Still an obscure disease. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2011;11:239-245.
  • Plasma exchange/Sandoglobulin Guillian-Barre’ Syndrome Trial Group. Guillian Barre’ syndrome: Clinical associations and outcome. Ann Neurol. 1998; 44:780-788.
  • Portegies P, Solod L, Cinque P, et al. EFNS task force guidelines for the diagnosis and management of neurological complications of HIV infection. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11:297-304.
  • Radziwill AJ, Kuntzer T, Steck AJ. Immunopathology and treatments of Guillain-Barré syndrome and of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2002;158:301-310.
  • Raffi F, Rachlis A, Stellbrink HJ, et al. Once-daily dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-naïve adults with HIV-1 infection: 48 week results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SPRING-2 study. Lancet. 2013;381:735-743.
  • Rauschkaa H, Jellingerb K, Lassmannc H, et al. Guillain–Barre´ syndrome with marked pleocytosis or a significant proportion of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid neuropathological investigation of five cases and review of differential diagnoses. Eur J Neurol. 2003;10:479-486.
  • Robinson-Papp J, Gonzalez-Duarte A, Simpson DM, et al. The roles of ethnicity and antiretrovirals in HIV-associated polyneuropathy: A pilot study. J Acquir Immun Defic Syndr. 2009;51:569-573.
  • Rockstroh JK, DeJesus E, Lennox JL, et al. Durable efficacy and safety of raltegravir versus efavirenz when combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naïve HIV-1–infected patients: Final 5-year results from STARTMRK. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:77-85.
  • Rosca EC, Rosca O, Simu M. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in a HIV-1 positive patient with Guillan-Barre syndrome. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;29:964-965.
  • Sandoval R, Runft B, Roddey T. Pilot study: Does lower extremity night splinting assist in the management of painful peripheral neuropathy in the HIV/AIDS population? J Int Assoc Phys AIDS Care (Chic). 2010;9:368-381.
  • Schreiber AL, Norbury JW, DeSousa EA. Functional recovery of untreated human immunodeficiency virus-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome: A case report. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2011;54:519-524.
  • Shelburne SA, Visnegarwala F, Darcourt J, et al. Incidence and risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome during highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2005;19:399-406.
  • Sidtis JJ, Gatsonis C, Price RW, et al. Zidovudine treatment of the AIDS dementia complex: Results of a placebo-controlled trial. Ann Neurol. 1993;33:343-349.
  • Silva CA, Penalva de Oliveira AC, et al. Neurologic cytomegalovirus complications in patients with AIDS: Retrospective review of 13 cases and review of the literature. Rev Inst Med Trop. 2010;52:305-310.
  • Simpson DM, Brown S, Tobias J. NGX-4010 C107 Study Group. Controlled trial of high-concentration capsaicin patch for treatment of painful HIV neuropathy. Neurology. 2008;70:2305-2313.
  • Tagliati M, Grinnell J, Godbold J, Simpson DM. Peripheral nerve function in HIV infection: Clinical, electrophysiologic, and laboratory findings. Arch Neurol. 1999;56:84-89.
  • Tyor WR, Glass JD, Baumrind N, et al. Cytokine expression of macrophages in HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy. Neurology. 1993;43:1002-1009.
  • Valcour VG. Evaluating cognitive impairment in the clinical setting: Practical screening and assessment tools. Top Antivir Med. 2011;19:175-80.
  • Valcour VG, Paul R, Chiao S, Wendelken LA, Miller B. Screening for cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:836-842.
  • Van der Meche FG, Schitz PI. A randomized trial comparing intravenous immune globulin and plasma exchange in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Dutch Guillain-Barre Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:1123-1129.
  • Veltman JA, Bristow CC, Klausner JD. Meningitis in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014,17:19184.
  • Verma A. Epidemiology and clinical features HIV-1 associated neuropathies. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2001;6:8-13.
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  • Wang SX, Ho EL, Grill M, et al. Peripheral neuropathy in primary HIV infection associates with systemic and CNS immune activation. J Acquir Immun Defic Syndr. 2014;66:303-310.
  • Wulff EA, Simpson DM. Neuromuscular complications of HIV-1 Infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 1999;1:192-197.
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  • Hagins D, Dietz C, Jain M, et al. "Efficacy of Dolutegravir/Abacavir/Lamivudine (DTG/ABC/3TC) Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) compared with Ritonavir Boosted Atazanavir (ATV/r) plus Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in Treatment-Naïve Women with HIV-1 Infection (ARIA Study): Analyses by Race Subgroups." IDWeek. New Orleans, October 26-30, 2016. Abstract 949.
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