Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Managing ART

Module 11, Version 4


  • Bastiaans D, Cressey T, Vromans H, Burger D. The role of formulation on the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2014;10:1019-1037.
  • Best GM, Capparelli EV, Diep H, et al. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir crushed versus whole tablets in children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;58:385-391.
  • Cahn P, Kaplan R, Sax P, et al. Raltegravir (RAL) 1200 mg once daily versus raltegravir 400 mg twice daily, with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine, for previously untreated HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. Lancet HIV. 2017 Nov;4(11):e486-e494.
  • Cahn P, Sax PE, Squires K, et al. Raltegravir 1200 mg Once Daily vs 400 mg Twice Daily, with Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil fumarate, for Previously Untreated HIV-1 Infection: Week 96 Results from ONCEMRK, a Randomized, Double-Blind, Noninferiority Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Aug 15;78(5):589-598
  • Calcagno A, Di Perri G, Bonora S. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiretrovirals in the central nervous system. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014;53:891-906.
  • Caniglia EC, Cain LE, Justice A, et al. Antiretroviral penetration into the CNS and incidence of AIDS-defining neurologic conditions. Neurology. 2014;83:134-141.
  • Cattaneo D, Baldelli S, Castoldi S, et al. Is it time to revise antiretrovirals dosing? A pharmacokinetic viewpoint. AIDS. 2014;28:2477-2479.
  • Crawford KW, Ripin DHB, Levin AD, et al. Optimising the manufacture, formulation, and dose of antiretroviral drugs for more cost-effective delivery in resource-limited settings: A consensus statement. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:550-560.
  • D'Antonio, N. Including motivational interviewing skills in the PharmD curriculum. Amer J Pharm Ed. 2010;74:152d.
  • Ellis RJ, Letendre S, Vaida F, et al. Randomized trial of central nervous system-targeted antiretrovirals for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:1015-1022.
  • ENCORE1 Study Group. Efficacy and safety of efavirenz 400 mg daily versus 600 mg daily: 96-week data from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority ENCORE1 Study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:793-802.
  • Eron JJ, Rockstroh JK, Reynes J, et al. Raltegravir once daily or twice daily in previously untreated patients with HIV-1: A randomised, active-controlled, phase III non-inferiority trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Dec;11:907-915.
  • Falcon RW, Kakuda TN. Drug interactions between HIV protease inhibitors and acid-reducing agents. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47:75-89.
  • Kakuda TN, Wade JR, Snoeck E, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor etravirine in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;88:695-703.
  • Krummenacher I, Cavassini M, Bugnon O, Schneider MP. An interdisciplinary HIV-adherence program combining motivational interviewing and electronic antiretroviral drug monitoring. AIDS Care. 2011;23:550-561.
  • Larson KB, Wang K, Delille C, et al. Pharmacokinetic enhancers in HIV therapeutics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014;53:865-872.
  • Lecher SL, Shrestha RK, Botts LW, et al. Cost analysis of a novel HIV testing strategy in community pharmacies and retail clinics. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2015;55:488-492.
  • Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Ances BM, et al. Neurologic complications of HIV disease and their treatment. Top HIV Med. 2010;18:45-55.
  • Leth FV, Kappelhoff BS, Johnson D, et al. Pharmacokinetic parameters of nevirapine and efavirenz in relation to antiretroviral efficacy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:232-239.
  • Mahtani KR, Heneghan CJ, Glasziou PP, Perera R. Reminder packaging for improving adherence to self-administered long-term medications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;9,CD005025.
  • Marzolini C, Telenti A, Decosterd LA, et al. Efavirenz plasma levels can predict treatment failure and central nervous system side effects in HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS. 2001;15:71-75.
  • Mello AF, Buclin T, Decosterd LA, et al. Successful efavirenz dose-reduction guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:189-197.
  • Minuesa G, Huber-Ruano I, Pastor-Anglada M, et al. Drug uptake transporters in antiretroviral therapy. Pharmacol Ther. 2011;132:268-279.
  • Poggio ED, Hall PM. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate by creatinine-based formulas: Any room for improvement? NephSAP. 2006;5:131-140.
  • Pomerantz RJ. Reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: The main obstacles to viral eradication. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:91-97.
  • Pretorius E, Klinker H, Rosenkranz B. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ther Drug Monit. 2011;33:265-274.
  • Renjifo B, van Wyk J, Salem AH, Bow D, Ng J, Norton M. Pharmacokinetic enhancement in HIV antiretroviral therapy: A comparison of ritonavir and cobicistat. AIDS Rev. 2015;17:37-46.
  • Rizk ML, Hang Y, Luo WL, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-daily versus twice-daily raltegravir in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:3101-3106.
  • Saberi P, Johnson MO. Technology-based self-care methods of improving antiretroviral adherence: A systematic review. PLOS One. 2011;6:e27533.
  • Saberi P, Johnson MO. Technology-based self-care methods of improving antiretroviral adherence: A systematic review. PLOS One. 2011;6:e27533.
  • Schalkwijk S, Colbers A, Konopnicki D, et al. Lowered rilpivirine exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected women. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 15;65(8):1335-1341.
  • Williams PE, Crauwels HM, Basstanie ED. Formulation and pharmacology of long-acting rilpivirine. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2015;10:239-245.
  • Agarwala S, Gray K, Wang Y, Grasela D. Pharmacokinetic effect of omeprazole on atazanavir co-administered with ritonavir in healthy subjects. Program and abstracts of the 2005 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; Feb 22-25, 2005; Boston, MA. Abstract 658.
  • Crauwels HM, van Heeswijk RP, Kestens D, et al. The pharmacokinetic interaction between omeprazole and TMC 278, an investigational NNRTI. Program and abstracts of the 9th International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection; November 9-13, 2008; Glasgow, United Kingdom. Abstract P239.
  • Kreitchmann R, Stek A, Best B, et al. Interaction between etonogestrel-releasing implant and 3 antiretroviral regimens. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. February 13-16, 2017. Seattle, WA, Abstract 938.
  • Letendre SL. HIV and the central nervous system. Impact of drug distribution.HIV Management. 2014: The New York Course.
  • Zhang H, Custodio JM, Wei X, et al. Clinical pharmacology of the HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor bictegravir. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. February 13-16, 2017. Seattle, WA. Abstract 40.

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