Mechanisms of HIV Transmission

Module 2, Version 4


  • Baeten, J. M., et al. (2012). "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N Engl J Med. 367(5):399-410.
  • Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:830-839.
  • Committee on Pediatric AIDS. Infant Feeding and Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. Pediatrics. 2013;131:391396.
  • De Cock KM, Fowler MG, Mercier E, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-poor countries: translating research into policy and practice. JAMA. 2000;283:1175-1182.
  • Dosekun O, Fox J. An overview of the relative risks of different sexual behaviours on HIV transmission. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:291-297.
  • Grant RM, et al. (2010). Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 363(27):2587-2599.
  • Joyce MP, Kuhar D, Brooks JT. Notes from the field: occupationally acquired HIV infection among healthcare workers - United States, 1985-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;63:1245-1246
  • Karim QA, Karim SA, Frohlich JA, et al. (2010). "Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women." Science. 5996(329):1168-1174.
  • Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, et al. Updated USPHS guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for post-exposure prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:875-892.
  • Marrazzo JM, Richardson BA, Gomez K, et al. (2015). Tenofovir-based preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. N Engl J Med. 372(6):509-518.
  • Pathela P, Braunstein SL, Blank S, Schillinger JA. HIV incidence among men with and those without sexually transmitted rectal infections: estimates from matching against an HIV case registry. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1203-1209.
  • Peterman TA, Newman, DR, Maddox L, Schmitt K, Shiver S. Extremely High Risk for HIV following a diagnosis of syphilis, men living in Florida, 2000-2011. Pub Health Rep. 2014;129:164-169.
  • Raesima MM, Ogbuabo CM, Thomas V, et al. Dolutegravir use at conception – additional surveillance data from Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(9):855-887.
  • Reback CJ, Fletcher JB. Elevated HIV and STI Prevalence and Incidence among Methamphetamine-using Men who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles County. AIDS Educ Prev. 2018;30(4):350-356.
  • Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Hughes JP, et al. Breast-milk infectivity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected mothers. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:736–740.
  • Taylor AW, Nesheim SR, Zhang X, et al. Estimated perinatal HIV infection among infants born in the United States, 2002-2013. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(5):435-442.
  • Thigpen, MC, et al. (2012). "Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana." N Engl J Med. 367(5):423-434.
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for post-exposure interventions to prevent infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus, and tetanus in persons wounded during bombings and other mass-casualty events --- United States, 2008. MMWR. 57(RR06);1-19.
  • Van Damme L, et al. (2012). Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. N Engl J Med. 367(5):411-422.
  • Joyce MP, Kuhar D, Brooks JT. Occupationally acquired HIV infection by healthcare personnel-United States, 1985-2013. Program and abstracts of the 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 23-26, 2015; Seattle, Washington. Abstract 1027.

Thank you for visiting the AAHIVM Provider Education Center! 

In order to continue, we will need you to create a profile. This will help us keep track of your education activity and CME accreditations.



Are you an AAHIVM member? If not, consider supporting the Academy and programs like these. Click here to become an Academy member.



Phone: 202-659-0699
Fax: 202-659-0976


AAHIVM National Office
1627 Eye St NW Suite 835
Washington, D.C. 20006


The American Academy of HIV Medicine is a professional organization that supports the HIV practitioner and promotes accessible, quality care for all Americans living with HIV disease. Our membership of HIV practitioners and credentialed HIV Specialists™, HIV Experts™, and HIV Pharmacists™ provide direct care to the majority of HIV patients in the US.